Internal medicine department includes the following specialties:
General internal medicine
The speciality of internal medicine identifies a wide range of conditions and treats disorders that regionally and systemically affect the internal organs. Referred as the “Queen of medical sciences” internal medicine merges the various subspecialties: endocrinology, haematology, cardiology, pulmonology, nephrology, and gastroenterology.
Internal medicine specialists are specialised in managing complex diagnostic problems applying scientific knowledge and clinical expertise. They are resolving acute conditions and continuously take care of complex chronic illnesses and promote the importance of disease prevention and adopting a healthy lifestyle.
Gastroenterology is a subspecialty of the internal medicine that treats digestive disorders. The digestive system is composed of the oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, small and large bowel, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts and pancreas.
The first steps of making diagnosis include taking detailed medical history and examination followed by laboratory tests, and then completed by different diagnostic methods: abdominal ultrasound, endoscopic examinations (gastroscopy, colonoscopy) and radiologic diagnostic procedures (X-ray, MSCT, MRI).
Endocrinology is a subspecialty of the internal medicine that covers the field of diagnostics and treatment of the endocrine and metabolic disorders. The endocrine disorders as diabetes, thyroid diseases, obesity and osteoporosis are very common in general population, while the adrenal gland and pituitary disorders occur relatively rarely.
Endocrine glands are connected to the neurovegetative system via hormones, taking part in regulation of all biological processes in the human body. Disorders affecting the hormone imbalance usually cause serious difficulties or even life threatening conditions.
Stress, modern lifestyle, excessive food intake and reduced physical activity increase the prevalence of endocrine diseases.
Cardiology is considered as a subspecialty of the internal medicine that covers the field of cardiovascular system (heart, blood vessels). Cardiovascular diseases are the most common disorders in the modern world and a leading cause of death in the developed countries. Modern diagnostic procedures change the course of disease and reduce mortality by focusing on prevention of an asymptomatic heart disease to progress into a symptomatic heart failure or coronary artery disease.
In daily clinical practice it is important to recognise morphological and structural heart changes as ventricular dysfunction (systolic, diastolic), haemodynamic abnormalities (valvular insufficiency or stenosis), compensatory mechanisms of cardiac remodeling (hypertrophy, dilatation), coronary artery patency and patency of other arteries, along with the risk factor assessment (smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and lipid blood levels, diabetes etc.).
Besides cardiac examination, if required, cardiologist will broad the diagnostic procedures that can include ECG test, continuous 24-hour ECG monitoring, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, heart ultrasound, color Doppler echocardiography, cardiac stress test (ergometry), electrophysiology, arterial and venous color Doppler ultrasound, MSCT coronary angiography, invasive coronary angiography or even therapeutic procedures as percutaneous coronary intervention, cryoablation, etc., to improve and optimize the patient health condition and prescribe the best therapy.
Pulmonology is a subspecialty of the internal medicine that focus on diagnostics, treatment and prevention of lung and respiratory diseases as inflammation, infection, structural changes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neoplasma and autoimmune disorders. Besides detailed medical history and pulmonary examinations, pulmologist can do the additional pulmonary tests as the lung function test, allergy testing, radiologic diagnostic procedures (X-ray, MSCT), bronchoscopy and biopsy to determine lung related diagnosis and suggest the therapy and change of the lifestyle habits.