Anaesthesiology is a branch of medicine that covers an extensive patient care before, during and after surgical procedures or other diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, provided in the operating room, post-anaesthesia care unit (recovery room) and in the intensive care unit. Anaesthesiology encompasses acute and chronic pain management as well. Anaesthesia care team includes physician specialists of anaesthesiology, resuscitation and intensive care medicine, as well as specially educated medical nurse, who works in the operating room as an anaesthesia technician and/or in the post-anaesthesia/ intensive care unit.
Anaesthesiologist is the physician specialist of anaesthesiology, resuscitation and intensive care medicine, who provides care for a patient during a preoperative preparation, surgical procedure and postoperative course. Considering patients general health and a type of surgery also estimates the most optimal anaesthetic plan. An anaesthesiologist monitors and maintains vital body functions, identifies and treats any disorder or urgent situation which might occur before, during and after a procedure (e.g. pain, allergic reaction to medication, bleeding, unexpected change in vital signs and other).
Anaesthesia is pharmacologically induced state of loss of sensation which enables painless surgical or other diagnostic-therapeutic procedures. The two main cathegories of anaeasthesia are general and regional.
Special hospital Agram is equipped with the most advanced medical devices for providing anaesthesia techniques and continuous monitoring of vital signs during the perioperative period in order to meet all patient safety standards.
Types of anaesthesia
General anaesthesia is pharmacologically induced gradual and reversible loss of consciousness and pain sensation (analgesia), loss of memory of surgery (amnesia), muscle relaxation and loss of reflexes. Considering the route of drug administration, general anaesthesia can be applied by mask ( inhaling anaesthetic gases), intravenously or combined. Basic vital functions are continuously monitored and the monitoring could be expanded if necessary.
Regional anaesthesia is a method of a direct anaesthetic application to a part of the body, which blocks conduction of nerve impulses, in order to achieve the loss of pain sensation. Regional anaesthesia is divided into the central nerve block (spinal, epidural anaesthesia: for surgical procedures in the legs, pelvis, lower part of the abdomen) and peripheral nerve block (for surgical procedures in isolated parts of the body: the hand, arm, shoulder, foot, lower leg, lower extremity). Patient can be awake or slightly drowsy (sedated). Vital functions are continuosly monitored.
Local anaesthesia is a method of anaesthetic application to a very specific part of the body, in order to achieve the loss of pain sensation during minor surgical procedures. Local anaesthesia is divided into the topical (direct application of drops, sprays or ointments to the body surface) and infiltration anaesthesia (an anaesthetic is applied around the operative field using a needle).
Infiltration anaesthesia is usually performed by a surgeon while a patient is awake. Anaesthesiologist may monitor vital functions and intravenously inject anxyolitic drugs for calming effect if needed (potentiated local anaesthesia/ monitored anaesthesia care).